The formulation of Foreign Policy is a difficult process for small states; it has become more difficult in today’s world. Foreign policy formulation depends on history, geographic location, religion, identity, ethnicity, culture and natural resources. It is an extension of domestic policy. Bangladesh pursues a moderate foreign policy with its neighboring countries. Bangladesh formulates its foreign policy by maintaining national security and sovereignty.
Bangladesh is a developing country that still struggles to increase the quality of life of its people. The foreign policy of Bangladesh is tied closely to the realities of its economic condition. Since independence, the country has received a great deal of foreign assistance in the effort to keep its people fed and to build, a modern society. Under these circumstances, it has been important for successive regimes to seek good relations with all nations and to attract economic aid from every possible source.
The Bangladesh foreign policy is a moderate policy which greatly relies on multinational diplomacy. It is said that most of the diplomacy employed by Bangladesh takes place within the United Nations. The fundamental Foreign Policy of Bangladesh is that the state shall base its international relations on the principles of respect for national sovereignty and equality, non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries, peaceful settlement of international disputes, and respect for international law on the principles enunciated in the United Nations Charters.
Background of the Study
Bangladeshi people fought the Liberation War in 1971 to achieve emancipation from deprivation and uplift their economic advancement to make the society egalitarian in a democratic and non-communal political entity where multi-religious, multi-cultural and multi-lingual people would live in peace and harmony. The foreign policy of Bangladesh started its journey with the diplomacy of recognition, which is now looking forward to accomplish with the economic diplomacy. During the last forty years, Bangladesh foreign policy has gone through many changes. The foreign policy of commenced after 16th December 1971. It is noted that the direction of foreign policy of Bangladesh did not begin with a “clean slate” because the impact of foreign policy during the provisional government could not be shaken off easily.
The 1975 change of the government after the tragic assassination of Sheikh Mujib had drastically altered the direction of the foreign policy. The emphasis of foreign policy was shifted from Indo-Soviet alliance to China and Islamic countries. After President H.M. Ershad who came into power in March 1982 through a military coup again change the direction of the foreign policy. The direction of foreign policy was to strengthen with all powers, especially with the US, China, Japan and Islamic countries. In present times, the direction of foreign policy aims at maximizing national human and natural endowments in pursuing cooperative policies with countries in the region and beyond and it seems to follow Lord Palmerston’s doctrine that there are no permanent enemies or eternal allies and what is permanent is national interests.
Rationale of the Study
The primary object of this paper is to examine the understanding foreign policy with several attributes in Bangladesh perspectives. The foreign policy behavior of Bangladesh is still undergoing a development process in certain areas. The foreign policy of Bangladesh is being changed with the change of the government in different regime. Here it becomes a bit difficult for the countries whose behavioral patterns shift so fast and rapidly not having a firmly established foreign policy goals and behaviors what determines the dos and don’ts in terms of foreign policy formulation and implementation as well. Our study aims to understanding the foreign policy of Bangladesh in a recent history approach. We are trying to find out what are the major factors of foreign policy in Bangladesh. We mainly focus on major foreign policy events of Bangladesh since 2000 to 2016.
Central Research Question
Throughout the paper, we will try to find out following things:
- What are the major recent events & sectors that helped to determine Bangladesh foreign policy approaches?
- How have different events shaped Bangladesh’s foreign policy?
The writing is based on qualitative analysis that involves a continual interplay between theory and analysis. Qualitative research method has been used for the fulfillment of the objectives of this paper. Some kinds of literature help us to get the idea of writing this topic. The secondary data has been used for the purpose of the study that includes reports, documents, magazines, books, journals, various newspapers, and subject related websites and research documents.
The reason behind the specific usage of the reference material in this paper is due to its concise nature and its specific applicability to the matter at hand, providing insight as to the current stance of Bangladesh foreign policy formulation and implementation as well as the interacting actors’ behaviors in the international system. We conducted the research mainly based on the officials’ interviews primarily whereas the secondary materials were available for theoretical framework and conceptualization. For completing the research, as the secondary materials, along with the officials’ interviews, we collected information from various sources like books, journals, articles, academic and government publications, e-books, various websites and so on.
Major Foreign Policy events of Bangladesh (2000-2016)
2000 December – Bangladesh expels Pakistani diplomat for commenting on the 1971 war. The diplomat had put the number of dead at 26,000, whereas Bangladesh says nearly three million were killed.
2001 June – Bomb kills 10 at Sunday mass at a Roman Catholic Church in Baniarchar town. Bomb at Awami League office near Dhaka kills 22. Parliament approves a bill providing protection for Hasina and her sister Sheikh Rehana, who feared that the killers of their father Mujib were out to get them too.
2006 October – Violent protests over government’s choice of a caretaker administration to take over when Premier Zia completes her term at the end of the month. President Ahmed steps in and assumes the caretaker role for the period leading to elections due in January 2007.
In the wake of rampant corruption, disorder and uncertainty regarding the believability of election underneath a caretaker government that conducted itself in an exceedingly clearly partisan manner, on eleven Gregorian calendar month 2007, a brand new caretaker government was appointed to administer the successive election. The new caretaker government controls the overall election on twenty-nine Dec 2008 that was acknowledged internationally as free, truthful and credible. The grand alliance crystal rectifier by the Awami League won the election with a landslide ending and shaped the govt. on via Gregorian calendar month 2009.
In the wake of the triple-crown completion of the term of the Awami League crystal rectifier Government in 2013, a brand new free and truthful election occurred on five Gregorian calendar month 2014. The individuals of the country reiterated their religion in democracy and also the politics of development crystal rectifier by tribal Sheik Hasina. The grand alliance crystal rectifier by the Awami League won a landslide ending within the election and shaped the govt. to continue her progressive politics of development.
The five Gregorian calendar month 2014 election ending of the grand alliance crystal rectifier by the Awami League has been a repetition of the people’s religion in democracy and a celebration of an inclusive, lay attribute.
2016 July – The Islamic State group claims an attack on a cafe in Dhaka’s diplomatic quarter in which 20 hostages, including 18 foreigners, are killed but the government rejects the claim saying the militant group Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen was responsible.
2016 November – UNHCR says thousands of Burma’s Bengali-speaking, Muslim Rohingya minority have fled to Bangladesh in recent weeks after Burmese troops allegedly carried out mass killings and gang rapes.
From the various perspective, Bangladesh’s Foreign Policy always been under some pressure which eventually scattered the prosperity and sustainability of the nation. Due to the location of the country where there most of the part is surrounded by the India and which has a major impact on the nation on almost every aspect as the experts think.
2000-2016 a longer period of time where she has seen lots of ups and downs and many changes which actually helped the nation not to be the one to rise with economic supremacy and development.
In this timeline, Bangladesh faces three major changes in the legislative body wherein 2008 it faced a military intervention with the help of the undertaker government. Every time the political order changes with an opposition power to hold the supremacy by all their forces. This is a common phenomenon that it has seen from a long since 1990. For this reason to analysis the foreign policy of Bangladesh, we few members as a team set few interview of the experts in this particular sector to understand the nature and the policy of this country.
For this reason, we first met Bangladesh Defense Journal’s Editor Abu Rushd Md Shahidul Islam who has been working as a journalist and a pioneer to start writing on Defense and has an acute knowledge from the perspective of military and the from his writing as a journalist from long eleven years.
During the long session of discussion about the foreign policy of Bangladesh, we realize it has some root to connect with the other parts to be one of the nation’s policy. Military and military moves which have a great impact on the foreign policy of any of the country. Due to this nature of the things many of the countries mainly establishing their military to supervise and rule to have a great impact on other countries like USA is considered the best military and has approximately 800 bases in the world where the other military superpower like Russia, China, India and others has their bases not even hundred altogether. It clearly means the order to dominate the other part of the world needs the great superpower to holds the supremacy to the world that the USA possesses from the very end of the Second World War.
According to Bangladesh’s Foreign Policy and considering the India and Pakistan whoever has the past in common factor during the Independence War 1971. But the things have been changed by time gone slowly. As a surrounding country, India has a greater impact over Bangladesh which eventually watches every moves that she takes and most of the cases she has to depend on India due to any reason. Though India is the country which helps the most of our venture and one the main Ally of Bangladesh, she has to take the decision taking consideration of India. If somehow Bangladesh’s moves hurt India which will cause her big compensation and cost would be very high to recover as a tiny country burden with a huge 160million people.
From the independence of the country, Bangladesh started building its military capacities to a certain extent to fight against the enemy within and without the country. For this reason, Bangladesh has to build their ally to buy military expertise and alongside to get the world-class military training she has to become well-wisher to her friendly nations. So she has to accommodate all her friendly nations in one bowl to get all the help from all of them. Bangladesh has their military support mostly from Russia, China, and the USA which she has to maintain this big superpower to stay along with all these superpowers.
Building the military she has to faces lots of critical moments that will eventually cause some issues. Again to maintain a relationship with India as a neighboring country she has to watch the moves especially this particular area. Bangladesh getting the help to build a strong military which needs much military equipment’s to buy and she needs to depend on others. But again as a small country when Bangladesh is planning to have something special, the other countries have their eyes on her especially India as China is the main supplier of the country and the biggest enemy of India which has an impact on its foreign policy.
Last year the visit of China’s President Xi Xing Ping after 26 years of any of the Chinese President. This visit also important for Bangladesh and India because China gave total 1 billion dollars for the development purpose and many other agreements between Bangladesh and China.
Due to the geographical location, Bangladesh has a great importance with this. China as a rising superpower it needs to captive some of the countries which are beside India. China needs to broaden its ally to have the supremacy to overshadow the other countries from rising.
Recent bold move from Bangladesh by buying two submarines also shaken the Indian government which eventually causes the diplomatic ending to have this attack weapon in the military and India getting tenses to have it by neighbor like Bangladesh. In this present situation helping a country like Bangladesh with an attack weapon with a giveaway price really a witty move to captive India by entering this region.
Again with the monetary support from Japan and China also has the influences to carry out the in fracture development and the economic development that Bangladesh has secured to lift up the GDP rate more than India.
In the economic perspective, Bangladesh can produce the cheapest and finest garments in the world with has an impact on the nation’s foreign policy to take a place to stand upright. But in 2013 s event the Rana Plaza devastation eventually helps Bangladesh to lose the GSP facility which could have carried a long way in the particular sector which can produce an event the largest amount of people job security.
In the other meeting with the Director General of United Nations Sadia Faizunnesa, where she explains the diplomacy and the current position of Bangladesh in the world after the Holy Artisan attack in the diplomatic area which eventually put Bangladesh at a gunpoint to have the access of the exterior militants in the country to restrict its entry and fame in the world. But with help of the diplomatic session with all the ambassadors, Bangladesh Government assure them the security and the security parameter that Bangladesh can possess and even the security system that Bangladesh can handle the terrorism with its own capability. But they can get help as the USA wishes to help Bangladesh in securing the national interest in this particular sector which Bangladesh can hope to have even better service to its nation with the help of the exterior countries help.
She also said, sooner Bangladesh going to start the conference diplomacy which going to take place here in Bangladesh as a host likewise Indonesia and Philippines. It will help to build other nations to come over here and can help to make better communication and maintaining relations with other countries.
In the cold war period, the world was on to two points. One was the USA and the other one was the Soviet Union but now in the recent time Bangladesh has now not only depended on them but also have the support from the European Union and the European Countries. Recently Bangladesh Prime minister invited to Germany to attend the environmental summit where Bangladesh was not invited earlier but in the recent time, Bangladesh Has shown the world the capacity to fight against the world make them the position in the multipolar world.
The international political system is a web of interconnected issues. As a result, foreign policy issues are very sensitive for each country. Since the inception of the foreign policy, theorizing and analyzing have been tenuous as the realities, for this particular part, changes every now and again. More or less Bangladesh also follows the same footsteps.
As a general overview, Bangladesh’s foreign policy derives her instructions from the constitution which enumerates a peaceful and friendly approach towards the rest of the world. Although in terms of the established ideological approaches, three are given prominence throughout the world. They are liberalism, realism, and constructivism.
Mostly the 16 years have been a mixture of the liberalism and realism perspectives, whether the situations demanded it or Bangladesh was left with no other point is a different argument altogether.
In the interviews, both Professor Rashed Uz Zaman and Shahidul Islam Chowdhury described that Bangladesh is faced with the brutal and unique reality of India. Bangladesh shares almost 4100km long border on the east, north and west sides with 5 different states of India (Lyngdoh, 2016). This is both a boon and a bane for the country. They posted similar points ascribing when there are areas of interest the co-operative nature helps both the countries. The case of terrorism issues which Bangladesh faced extensively during the Khaleda Zia regime (2001-2006) and secessionist violent groups in the north-eastern states of India both have been significant. This becomes an issue of co-operation as the involved people often cross the borders illegally to stay out of reach of the law enforcing agencies.
On the other hand, there are several issues of conflict. The water sharing of the rivers or drug smuggling and illegal trading issues around the border are very sensitive and important for both the countries. The river-related issue which has become the biggest attention in the past few years, where India’s central government could not reach a settlement with the regional West Bengal state government.
As a result, we see a lot of chatter converging these issues. The geography, interest, and conflicting issues cannot be held nor theorized under one kind of thinking. At the same time, there is an issue of Bangladesh’s regime where there is an undeniable factor of perception that the Sheikh Hasina regime is more pro-India than Khaleda Zia regime. The realist idea puts forward the significance of state as the key actor. The constructivist idea is based out of socially constructed views of the world; perception, approach, relations etc. plays a dominant role in this case. Hence, the approach by Zia regime towards India’s relation is closer to realist theory. The approach by Hasina regime especially with Indian National Congress in power can be defined by the constructivist theory.
It also needs to be stated that one approach doesn’t necessarily can be the definitive one. More often, it applies for a specific time period. The momentous exchange of Bangladesh’s and India’s enclaves is a shining example of the statement. The Hasina regime was able to complete this exchange when Bharatiya Janata Party’s Narendra Modi was in power. This is an exceptional development in Bangladesh-India relations also in breaking the pre-conceived notion of a weakening relation as BJP was in power.
Bangladesh had also two big wins in terms of her maritime power. The first dispute was neighboring Myanmar and the second one was with India. In both cases, Bangladesh was given a huge portion of her maritime territory which has significance in maritime resources and potential energy resources as well. At the same time, it has to be kept in mind that Bangladesh still doesn’t have a deep sea port. The maritime wins can also be helpful for that particular reason as well. It wouldn’t be considered a shift in foreign relations but certainly, this advantage will play the big role in trading and strengthening military ties, especially after the fact Bangladesh now has two submarines in their naval power.
‘The State shall base its international relations on the principles of respect for national sovereignty and equality, non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries, peaceful settlement of international disputes, and respect for international law and the principles enunciated in the United Nations Charter.’ (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
The International Crimes Tribunal which was and continues to handle cases of crimes against humanity during the 1971 Liberation war of Bangladesh brought a lot of attention. As some high-profile leaders were tried and sentenced some countries namely Turkey and more ominously Pakistan had strong opinions surrounding it. Although the trial was maintaining international trial standards and transparency, the comments and government decisions of the countries were seen as interference in the internal affairs of Bangladesh. Pakistan’s act has made the relation bitter and negative. The policy Bangladesh follows to be respectful and ‘non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries’, wants to be treated similarly, which didn’t happen from Pakistan.
Theories square measure the way to research the past and predict the long run. For a comprehensive perceiving, there oughta definite to understand the 3 theories in question.
Classical realists begin with a demoralized read of attribute and from this, they create key assumptions concerning the “nature” of states and state behaviors. They believe that the dominant characteristic of the System International is a disorder. Neorealist or structural realists emphasize this, instead of an attribute, because of the start line for his or her rationalization of world politics. Thanks to disorder, states square measure compelled to be perpetually watchful, observation out for impositions on their autonomy. The most effective thanks to defending a state’s autonomy—and so guarantee its survival—is to amass power resources that may be accustomed deter or defend against different states. All states square measure equally impelled and so may be expected to try and do what’s necessary to survive—sometimes resorting to the employment of armed violence against others to capture further power resources that may be controlled for the protection of the state. Power itself (or the items that along represent power, like military and economic might) is finite within the System International, thus whenever a state lays claim to a definite quantity of power resources, different states square measure bereft of those resources. For classical realists, international politics may be a game wherever the gains of 1 state equal the losses of another. International politics is additionally essentially conflictual.
The realist perspective is state targeted. States and solely states square measure international actors, or the sole international actors of note, privilege, and agency. International organizations and nongovernmental actors square measure solely vital to review as instruments of states following their own national interests. What goes on inside a state is also unimportant as a result of all states have a similar operational motivation—protect the state (the national interest) by exploiting larger and larger amounts of power. The vital topics to review from a realist perspective embrace power balances, relative versus absolute power, and therefore the multiple uses of power by one state over another (or a gaggle of states over another group). More modern realist scholarship focuses on whether or not to balance power or threats and states’ pursuit of relative and contingent gains over others (Neck, 2008).
Liberals begin from a special assumption concerning attribute and find you with a special read concerning international politics. Humans, within the liberal read, treasure autonomy, however, don’t assume that their autonomy is vulnerable by different humans. Instead, humans exist inside several networks of relationships that facilitate them win together what they cannot win on their own. Humans World Health Organization have the chance to exercise self-determination can respect others’ rights to a similar and can price the social material that assists all people in fulfillment. Even as a national society ought to result from a system that respects the rights and serves the collective can of these individuals, international society ought to even be based on principles that respect the rights of individual, self-determining states and serve the collective smart. International politics, then, is characterized by or may be characterized by harmony among international actors. Thanks to this expectation that the long run may notice countries harmonized with each other, the liberal read is typically referred to as idealism.
Liberalism features a corollary in liberal theory within which it’s projected that free and open trade between countries will decrease the chance of conflict between them. Primarily, the argument is that a lot of folks trade, the larger the ties that bind them along. And therefore there’s a lot of folks trade, which they reap the advantages of trade along. In time, interdependencies and mutual gains can build the war and violent conflict less possible, as all countries profit from—and perceive that they profit from—their open relationships with each other. Globalization may be a development that liberals welcome, as they acknowledge that aspects of globalization ought to be tempered so as to accommodate completely different peoples’ considerations and interests (Neck, 2008).
The original insight behind the artistic movement is that that means is “socially made.” this is often conjointly the supply of the label “constructivism.” Wendt says “a basic principle of creative person social theory is that individuals act toward objects, as well as different actors, on the idea of the meanings that the objects have for them.” during a socially made world, the existence of patterns, cause-and-result relationships, and even states themselves depends on webs of that means and practices that represent them. These meanings and practices may generally be comparatively stable, however, they’re never fastened and will not be mistaken for permanent objects. As concepts and practices vary over time or area, patterns that after looked solid and foreseeable might modification in addition. For example, sovereignty may be a social establishment within the sense that a state may be sovereign only if it’s seen by folks and different states as a company actor with rights and obligations over territory and voters (and they act accordingly). The observer of sovereignty has modified over time, and therefore the powers and identities of truly existing states have modified in addition. To require a lot of concrete examples, since 1945 the concept has unfolded that huge human rights violations by states against their voters might wrongfully justify international intervention. Sovereignty is thereby ever-changing, and therefore the autonomy of some rulers (that is, rights violators) is reduced whereas that of others (potential interveners) is multiplied. Sovereignty is a very important organizing force in diplomacy that rests on the shared concepts (of folks of individuals) and therefore the practices people interact in.
A different approach to “social construction” in world politics is that the position referred to as “materialism,” that suggests that material objects (bombs, mountains, people, oil, and then on) have a right away result on outcomes that’s immediate by the concepts folks arouse them. Neorealism and liberalism square measure expressly materialist approaches to world politics. They look for to elucidate international patterns and behaviors because the results of strictly material forces, significantly the military hardware, strategic resources, and cash that they see as constituting “power.” for instance, John Mearsheimer argues that “the distribution of fabric capabilities among states is that the key issue for understanding world politics.” Among neoliberals, Joshua Goldstein and Henry M. Robert Keohane (1994) determine states’ material interests as distinct from people’s concepts concerning the globe, and their analysis on the causative effects of concepts uses as its baseline the materialist hypothesis (Hurd, 2008).
Events and their Connectedness with Theory:
The international social group may be a set of interconnected problems. As a result, policy problems square measure terribly sensitive for every country. Since the origin of policy, theorizing and analyzing is tenuous because of the realities, for this specific half changes each currently and once more. A lot of or less Asian country conjointly follows a similar footstep.
As a general summary, Bangladesh’s policy derives her directions from the constitution that enumerates a peaceful and friendly approach towards the remainder of the globe. Though in terms of the established philosophic approaches, 3 square measure given prominence throughout the globe. They’re liberalism, realism and artistic movement.
Mostly the sixteen years are a combination of the liberalism and realism views, whether or not the things demanded it or Asian country was left with no different purpose may be a completely different argument altogether.
In the interviews, Prof. Rashed Uz Zaman delineated that Asian country is Janus-faced with the brutal and distinctive reality of India. Asian country shares virtually 4100km long approach the east, north and west sides with five completely different states of India. This is often each a boon and a scourge for the country. They exhibit similar points ascribing, once there square measure areas of interest the co-operative nature helps each the countries. The case of an act of terrorism problems that Asian country Janus-faced extensively throughout the Khaleda Zia regime (2001-2006) and advocator violent teams within the north-eastern states of India each are important. This becomes a problem of co-operation because the concerned folks usually cross the borders lawlessly to remain out of reach of the law implementing agencies.
On the opposite hand, their square measure many problems with conflict. The water sharing of the rivers or drug importation and contraband commercialism problems around the border square measure terribly sensitive and vital for each the countries. The watercourse connected issue that has become the largest attention within the past few years, wherever India’s central government couldn’t reach a settlement with the regional West Bengal authorities.
As a result, we have a tendency to see plenty of chatter connection these problems. The Geographic’s, interest, and conflicting problems cannot be control nor theorized below one reasonably thinking. At a similar time, there’s a problem of Bangladesh’s regime wherever there’s associate simple issue of perception that the Arab chief Hasina regime is a lot of pro-India than Khaleda Zia regime. The realist plan puts forward the importance of state because of the key actor. The creative person plan is predicated out of socially made views of the world; perception, approach, relations etc. play a dominant role during this case. Hence, the approach by Zia regime towards India’s relation is nearer to realist theory. The approach by Hasina regime particularly with Indian National Congress in power may be outlined by the creative person theory.
It conjointly has to be expressed that one approach doesn’t essentially may be the definitive one. More often, it applies for a particular period of time. The significant exchange of Bangladesh’s and India’s enclaves may be a shining example of the statement. The Hasina regime was ready to complete this exchange once Bharatiya Janata Party’s Narendra Modi holding the power. This is often associate exceptional development in Bangladesh-India relations conjointly in breaking the pre-conceived notion of a weakening relation as BJP was in power.
Bangladesh had conjointly 2 massive wins in terms of her maritime power. The primary dispute was the neighboring Union of Burma and therefore the second was with India. In each case, Asian country was given an enormous portion of her maritime territory that has significance in maritime resources and mechanical energy resources in addition. At a similar time, it’s to be unbroken in mind that Asian country still doesn’t have a deep ocean port. The maritime wins can even be used for that exact reason in addition. It wouldn’t be thought-about a shift in foreign relations however actually this advantage can play a massive role in commercialism and strengthen military ties, particularly when the very fact Asian country currently has 2 submarines in their service power.
‘The State shall base its diplomacy on the principles of respect for national sovereignty and equality, non-interference in the internal affairs of different countries, peaceful settlement of international disputes, and respect for the law of nations and therefore the principles enunciated within the international organization Charter.’ (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
The International Crimes court that was and continues to handle cases of crimes against humanity throughout the 1971 Liberation war of Asian country brought plenty of attention. As some position leaders were tried and sentenced some countries specifically Turkey and a lot of ominously West Pakistan had robust opinions encompassing it. Though the trial was maintaining international trial standards and transparency, the comments and government selections of the countries were seen as interference in the internal affairs of the Asian country. Pakistan’s act has created the relation bitter and negative. The policy Asian country follows to be respectful and ‘non-interference in the internal affairs of different countries’, desires to be treated equally, that didn’t happen from West Pakistan.
In the end of the discussion, we can conclude that foreign policy of Bangladesh is not still a strong one though being very dynamic in recent years which is reflected on the sea boundary issue with the India and Myanmar. It is also reflected in the COP-15 conference held in Copenhagen, Denmark-where Bangladesh protested the greatest powers of the world by diplomacy with the other LDC states by demanding a sum for the reparations of the environmental degradation. So at last if can be expected that in the near future Bangladesh foreign policy will be the strongest one which will associate to improve her status in an international arena. Bangladesh diplomacy should be practical and economic diplomacy has so far stay behind a theoretical exercise. We should be kept in mind that there are cooperation and competition between and amongst the super, big and emerging powers including USA, EU, China, India, Russia and Japan; Bangladesh has to play a constructive role bilaterally and multilaterally to try to resolve tensions, resolve conflicts and work jointly for the establishment of peace. It is difficult to define the foreign policy of Bangladesh with one or two theories.
Md.tariqul Hasan Rifat
students, International Relations, Bangladesh University of Professionals
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Best Regards to:-
A R M Shahidul IslamAbu Rushd, Editor, Bangladesh Defense Journal
SadiaFaizunnesa, Director General, United Nations
Professor RashedUzZaman, Department of International Relations, Dhaka University
Professor Moin, Department of International Relations, Jahangirnagar University
Shahidul Islam Chowdury, Senior Diplomatic Correspondent, New Age