The Implementation of the Khartoum Agreement in the Central African Republic in the Wake of High-Risk Elections

The Implementation of the Khartoum Agreement in the Central African Republic in the Wake of High-Risk Elections

Abstract While legislatives and presidential elections are over, the 2019 Khartoum agreement seems harder and harder to implement. Indeed, rebel groups still hold a large part of the country, whereas the government is struggling to restore State authority all over the national territory. The situation is even more tense since former President Fran√ßois Boziz√© is…Read More

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The Causes of Underdevelopment in the Third World And Possibility for Human Development

Before¬†discussing¬†the¬†causes¬†of¬†development¬†and¬†underdevelopment¬†in¬†the¬†third¬†world,¬†we¬†must¬†address¬†the¬†debated¬†controversy¬†of¬†what¬†constitutes¬†the¬†definitions¬†of¬†the¬†key¬†terms.¬†The¬†first¬†subsection¬†of¬†this¬†article¬†will¬†discuss¬†the¬†controversy¬†surrounding¬†the¬†definition¬†of¬†each¬†term¬†and¬†ultimately¬†reach¬†to¬†a¬†final¬†definition¬†that¬†will,¬†at¬†least¬†for¬†the¬†purposes¬†of¬†this¬†paper,¬†act¬†as¬†the¬†consensus¬†of¬†discussion¬†of¬†the¬†question¬†posited¬†above. The second part will show you the various possibility of humane development. Economic¬†development¬†is¬†a¬†complex¬†process. There¬†are¬†many¬†indicators¬†to¬†be¬†taken¬†into¬†consideration¬†and¬†many¬†conventional¬†means¬†that¬†must¬†not¬†be taken¬†into¬†consideration.¬†The¬†following¬†is¬†a¬†discussion¬†of¬†the¬†indicators¬†that¬†can¬†be¬†used¬†to¬†define¬†economic¬†development¬†and¬†their¬†plausibility¬†as¬†credible¬†benchmarks¬†of¬†the¬†achievement¬†of¬†economic¬†development.   i) Changes¬†in¬†Gross¬†Domestic¬†Product: Change¬†in¬†GDP¬†is¬†a¬†way¬†to¬†measure¬†economic¬†development. Positive¬†change¬†in¬†the¬†GDP¬†means¬†the same¬†in the case¬†of¬†income.¬†GDP¬†per¬†person, therefore,¬†is¬†a¬†measure¬†to¬†calculate the average¬†standard¬†of¬†living.¬†But¬†this¬†idea¬†may¬†prove¬†deceptive¬†because¬†almost¬†none¬†of¬†the¬†people¬†of¬†a¬†country¬†receive¬†the¬†average¬†income. Some¬†receive¬†more¬†and¬†most¬†receive¬†less.¬†In¬†many¬†cases, the¬†most¬†part¬†of¬†the¬†increased¬†GDP¬†goes¬†to¬†the¬†wealthiest¬†of¬†the¬†country¬†and¬†the¬†poorest¬†receive¬†so¬†little.¬†A¬†very¬†alarming¬†case¬†all¬†over¬†the¬†world¬†is¬†that¬†the¬†gap¬†between¬†the¬†rich¬†and¬†the¬†poor¬†is¬†only¬†increasing¬†in¬†most¬†countries.¬†Therefore¬†an¬†increase¬†in¬†GDP¬†rarely¬†means¬†the¬†increase¬†in¬†the¬†standard¬†of¬†living¬†of¬†the¬†people.¬†A¬†case¬†study¬†on¬†this¬†is¬†the¬†Indira¬†Gandhi¬†Canal¬†Project¬†in¬†India,¬†where¬†the¬†project¬†stemmed¬†an¬†increase¬†in¬†the¬†overall¬†GDP¬†but¬†failed¬†to¬†ameliorate¬†the¬†conditions¬†of¬†the¬†marginally¬†poor¬†and¬†centralized¬†land¬†and¬†capital¬†in¬†the¬†hands¬†of¬†a¬†newly¬†prosperous¬†landowning¬†class¬†who¬†were¬†successful¬†to¬†buy¬†off¬†or¬†control¬†the¬†peasantry¬†by¬†other¬†methods¬†who¬†were¬†originally¬†endowed¬†with¬†the¬†land¬†by¬†the¬†government.¬†Therefore,¬†while the change¬†in¬†GDP¬†can¬†be¬†an¬†indicator¬†for¬†economic¬†development,¬†it¬†is¬†only¬†partial¬†and¬†not¬†the¬†most¬†reliable¬†one.   ii) Sustainability: Sustainability¬†is¬†an¬†important¬†indicator¬†of¬†real¬†economic¬†development…Increasing¬†numbers¬†of¬†people¬†are¬†calling¬†for¬†sustainable¬†development:¬†development¬†that¬†protects¬†its¬†environmental¬†base¬†so¬†that¬†it¬†can¬†be¬†continued¬†into¬†the¬†indefinite¬†future.¬†According¬†to¬†this¬†way¬†of¬†looking¬†at¬†the¬†issue,¬†economic¬†growth¬†that¬†fails¬†to¬†protect¬†the¬†environment¬†is¬†not¬†true¬†development,¬†because¬†it¬†cannot¬†be¬†sustained while¬†Isbister¬†only¬†concerned¬†about¬†the¬†environmental¬†effects¬†as¬†a¬†measure¬†for¬†sustainability,¬†increase¬†in¬†average¬†GDP¬†per¬†person¬†and¬†standard¬†of¬†living¬†is¬†surely¬†another¬†one. Because¬†if¬†the¬†economy¬†fails¬†to¬†produce¬†enough¬†buyers¬†for¬†the¬†product¬†it¬†produces,¬†it¬†would¬†fail¬†to¬†sustain¬†the¬†development¬†it¬†achieves¬†in¬†the¬†short¬†run.¬†We¬†find¬†the¬†truth¬†of¬†this¬†case¬†in¬†studying¬†Brazil¬†where¬†the¬†poor¬†grew¬†in¬†number¬†and¬†not¬†in the standard¬†of¬†living,¬†the economy¬†being¬†unable¬†to¬†buy¬†the¬†products¬†that¬†the¬†economy¬†produced.   iii)¬†Income¬†distribution:¬† Income¬†distribution¬†is¬†an¬†important¬†benchmark¬†that¬†provides¬†sustainability¬†to¬†the¬†economic¬†growth.¬†Although¬†this¬†was¬†ignored¬†by¬†many¬†economists¬†in¬†the¬†past,¬†this¬†idea¬†is¬†growing¬†more¬†prominent¬†by¬†the¬†day.¬†The¬†trend¬†for¬†the¬†new¬†century¬†is¬†bridging¬†the¬†gap¬†between¬†the¬†rich¬†and¬†the¬†poor¬†and¬†creating¬†a¬†middle¬†class¬†that¬†can¬†consume¬†the¬†products¬†that¬†the¬†economy¬†produces.   iv)Human¬†development¬†and¬†the¬†achievement¬†of¬†basic¬†needs: The¬†establishment¬†of¬†World¬†Bank¬†as¬†an¬†international¬†lending¬†organization¬†changed¬†the¬†definition¬†of¬†economic¬†development¬†to¬†a¬†great¬†extent.¬†In the 1970s,¬†Bank¬†President¬†Robert¬†S.McNamara¬†and¬†his¬†associated directed¬†attention¬†to¬†the¬†needs¬†of¬†the¬†absolute¬†poor¬†and¬†directed¬†economic¬†development¬†towards¬†basic¬†needs.¬†The¬†basic¬†needs¬†are sufficient¬†food,¬†adequate¬†shelter¬†from¬†the¬†elements,¬†decent¬†clothing,¬†protection¬†from¬†disease,¬†and¬†elementary¬†education.¬†The¬†United¬†Nations¬†Development¬†Program¬†advanced¬†the¬†basic¬†needs¬†approach¬†a¬†step. Further¬†by¬†constructing¬†a¬†human¬†development. It¬†acts as¬†an¬†alternative¬†to¬†the¬†GDP¬†expansion¬†approach¬†to¬†economic¬†development¬†because¬†part¬†of¬†the¬†HDI¬†is¬†also¬†the¬†expansion¬†of¬†the¬†GDP¬†expansion¬†per¬†person¬†and¬†also¬†includes¬†the¬†achievement¬†of¬†basic¬†needs.¬†This¬†gives¬†us¬†newer¬†outlook¬†in¬†viewing¬†economic¬†development.¬†Under¬†the¬†HDI¬†approach,¬†China¬†does¬†better¬†than¬†it¬†does¬†under¬†the¬†GDP¬†approach¬†because¬†it¬†has¬†been¬†largely¬†successful¬†to¬†provide¬†the¬†basic¬†needs¬†to¬†its¬†people.¬†Some¬†countries¬†like¬†Brazil¬†shows¬†results¬†that¬†are¬†just¬†the¬†opposite¬†and¬†these¬†performances¬†directly relate¬†to¬†the¬†standard¬†of¬†living¬†in¬†the¬†people¬†residing¬†in¬†these¬†countries. Therefore,keeping¬†all¬†the¬†aforementioned¬†conditions¬†in¬†mind,¬†an¬†acceptable¬†definition¬†of¬†¬†economic¬†development¬†is:¬†The¬†expansion¬†of¬†the¬†economy¬†measured¬†by¬†the¬†expansion¬†in¬†the¬†GDP¬†that¬†is¬†sustainable¬†and¬†provides¬†proper¬†income¬†distribution¬†among¬†the¬†people¬†of¬†the¬†economy¬†resulting¬†to¬†a¬†better¬†standard¬†of¬†living¬†as¬†measured¬†by¬†the¬†achievement¬†of¬†basic¬†needs¬†and¬†a¬†better¬†ranking….Read More