Thinking Global Local And Why We Should Care About The Environment, Climate Change

Abstract Climate change is a major problem caused by human activities or human mismanagement of the environment, resulting in several direct and indirect impacts on man’s health and the planet. These man-induced changes have wide-range harmful effects, including, increase in heat-related mortality, dehydration, the spread of infectious diseases, malnutrition, damages to public infrastructure, forced migration…Read More

Fall of the Oyo Empire: Causes, Consequences and Lessons for Modern day Nigeria

ABSTRACT In his essay  ‘Fate of Empires” soldier, diplomat, and traveler LT-General Sir John Glove analyze the life cycle of empires; he found remarkable similarities between them all. From the early founding fathers who worked to develop the state to the final corrupt over-ambitious leaders who become a burden on the state. It must be…Read More

The Implementation of the Khartoum Agreement in the Central African Republic in the Wake of High-Risk Elections

Abstract While legislative and presidential elections are over, the 2019 Khartoum agreement seems harder and harder to implement. Indeed, rebel groups still hold a large part of the country, whereas the government is struggling to restore State authority all over the national territory. The situation is even tenser since former President François Bozizé is suspected…Read More

The Causes of Underdevelopment in the Third World And Possibility for Human Development

Before discussing the causes of development and underdevelopment in the third world, we must address the debated controversy of what constitutes the definitions of the key terms. The first subsection of this article will discuss the controversy surrounding the definition of each term and ultimately reach to a final definition that will, at least for the purposes of this paper, act as the consensus of discussion of the question posited above. The second part will show you the various possibility of humane development. Economic development is a complex process. There are many indicators to be taken into consideration and many conventional means that must not be taken into consideration. The following is a discussion of the indicators that can be used to define economic development and their plausibility as credible benchmarks of the achievement of economic development.   i) Changes in Gross Domestic Product: Change in GDP is a way to measure economic development. Positive change in the GDP means the same in the case of income. GDP per person, therefore, is a measure to calculate the average standard of living. But this idea may prove deceptive because almost none of the people of a country receive the average income. Some receive more and most receive less. In many cases, the most part of the increased GDP goes to the wealthiest of the country and the poorest receive so little. A very alarming case all over the world is that the gap between the rich and the poor is only increasing in most countries. Therefore an increase in GDP rarely means the increase in the standard of living of the people. A case study on this is the Indira Gandhi Canal Project in India, where the project stemmed an increase in the overall GDP but failed to ameliorate the conditions of the marginally poor and centralized land and capital in the hands of a newly prosperous landowning class who were successful to buy off or control the peasantry by other methods who were originally endowed with the land by the government. Therefore, while the change in GDP can be an indicator for economic development, it is only partial and not the most reliable one.   ii) Sustainability: Sustainability is an important indicator of real economic development…Increasing numbers of people are calling for sustainable development: development that protects its environmental base so that it can be continued into the indefinite future. According to this way of looking at the issue, economic growth that fails to protect the environment is not true development, because it cannot be sustained while Isbister only concerned about the environmental effects as a measure for sustainability, increase in average GDP per person and standard of living is surely another one. Because if the economy fails to produce enough buyers for the product it produces, it would fail to sustain the development it achieves in the short run. We find the truth of this case in studying Brazil where the poor grew in number and not in the standard of living, the economy being unable to buy the products that the economy produced.   iii) Income distribution:  Income distribution is an important benchmark that provides sustainability to the economic growth. Although this was ignored by many economists in the past, this idea is growing more prominent by the day. The trend for the new century is bridging the gap between the rich and the poor and creating a middle class that can consume the products that the economy produces.   iv)Human development and the achievement of basic needs: The establishment of World Bank as an international lending organization changed the definition of economic development to a great extent. In the 1970s, Bank President Robert S.McNamara and his associated directed attention to the needs of the absolute poor and directed economic development towards basic needs. The basic needs are sufficient food, adequate shelter from the elements, decent clothing, protection from disease, and elementary education. The United Nations Development Program advanced the basic needs approach a step. Further by constructing a human development. It acts as an alternative to the GDP expansion approach to economic development because part of the HDI is also the expansion of the GDP expansion per person and also includes the achievement of basic needs. This gives us newer outlook in viewing economic development. Under the HDI approach, China does better than it does under the GDP approach because it has been largely successful to provide the basic needs to its people. Some countries like Brazil shows results that are just the opposite and these performances directly relate to the standard of living in the people residing in these countries. Therefore,keeping all the aforementioned conditions in mind, an acceptable definition of  economic development is: The expansion of the economy measured by the expansion in the GDP that is sustainable and provides proper income distribution among the people of the economy resulting to a better standard of living as measured by the achievement of basic needs and a better ranking….Read More