Contribution of Muslim Rulers in the Society of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain)

Abstract The Iberian Peninsula is a mountainous region in Europe located in the present days in Spain and Portugal. Muslims recognized this region as Andalusia. Gibraltar channel had separated Europe and Africa on the southern side of this peninsula. Different power rules this land in multiple periods of history. In the medieval period, this area…Read More

Assessing risk of new war in Eastern Europe

Assessing risk of new war in Eastern Europe

In the light of recent aggression of Russia towards Ukraine and exponential increase of tensions between Moscow and NATO allows suggesting that Kremlin is aiming for the long-term confrontation with the possibility of further escalation. The most obvious targets for the future aggression are Poland and the Baltic countries. In this the report we argue…Read More

Religious and Cultural Intolerance against minority

Religious and Cultural Intolerance against minority: Muslim in Europe

Religious and Cultural Intolerance against minority groups is very prevalent everywhere in the world to a various extent. Europe would be one among many. As it wants to promote unitary or homogeneity and they try to oppose the differences in any terms cultural, religious, and linguistic or any other differences. As result of such unilateralism…Read More

Peacekeeping mission in the East of Ukraine

Peacekeeping Mission in the East of Ukraine: What Options are on the Table?

The conflict in Donbas has been tearing Ukraine for more than three years. It has devastating consequences not only for the country’s integrity but also for European security and Russia’s relations with its Western partners. Despite the efforts of Normandy Fourto put an end to violence, hostilities continue. The Minsk II agreement on the ceasefire…Read More

Independence of Catalonia: Will it get out of Control?

Independence of Catalonia: Will it get out of Control?

Separatist sentiment in Catalonia has existed since long time ago. However, it appears that the determination to gain independence from Spain has persisted and grown stronger ever since the death of Francisco Franco in 1975. As part of Spain, Catalonia is one of the richest regions with its own distinct culture and language. Despite autonomy…Read More

Europe’s national security dilemmas: Who is crossing the line?

Europe’s national security dilemmas: Who is crossing the line?

Faced with the assertive power of Russia, Turkey, Iran, and China, Europe is witnessing a return to geopolitics where the struggle for self-determination becomes the stepping stone for political profit. Opportunist leaders are evoking geopolitical thinking in an attempt to shade the balance of power and reassert old territorial claims. Considering the geopolitical interests of…Read More